1.Ba Dinh square and Ho Chi Minh mausoluem
1.1 Brief information about uncle Ho Chi Minh
– Who is Ho Chi Minh? What was he born? What did he do? When did he become the 1st President of Vietnam?
– When did he die and the reason for this mausoleum?
1.2 Ba Dinh square:
– Brief introduction about this area
– Why Ho Chi Minh mausoleum was built here?
1.3 Ho Chi Minh mausoleum:
– When did the construction project start? And completed?
– Where was Ho Chi Minh’s before this mausoleum was completed?
– Where material came from?
– About the construction project?
– Signification of its structure and details
2. The Presidential Palace
– When was it built? For who and for what?
– About French architecture in Hanoi?
– What happened to this palace when Ho Chi Minh’s government took power?
– And now?
3. The house No.58
– The purpose of this house?
– Brief information about some items displayed in this house?
4. Ho Chi Minh house on silts
– Why was this house built?
– Its structure and signification?
– Ho Chi Minh’s life in this house
– About the surrounding garden?
– Importance of Ho Chi Minh memorial site to local people.
5. One pillar pagoda
– Why there’s a pagoda here
– Its unique architecture: legend and signification
– What happened to this pagoda in 19454
6. Ho Chi Minh museum.
6.1 General introduction about this museum: when was it built? Its purpose and architecture?
6.2 The upstairs lobby: Ho Chi Minh statue
6.3 Where was he born, his family, why did he decided to travel in 1921 and where had he been to?
6.4 What did he do during his traveling? When did he meet the Lenin’s document?
6.5 When and where did he establish the first Vietnamese Communist party? And How?
6.6 Under his leading, how’s we fight against the French?
6.7 1941: he came back – where did he stay and how?
6.8 The August Revolution in 1945
6.9 The Dien Bien Phu victory in 1954
6.10 Fighting against the US army in the South
6.11 Ho Chi Minh went away in 1969
6.12 Reunify the country after his death
6.13 “For the fruitfulness of ten years, we grow up trees. For hundred years, we grow up children”
1.Brief information about Ho Chi Minh and Ba Dinh square
1.1 Brief information about uncle Ho Chi Minh
* Who is Ho Chi Minh? His role in the country’s history?
– Ho Chi Minh is the great father of Vietnam, who dedicated his life to save the country from invaders.
In 1930, Ho Chi Minh founded the first Vietnamese Communist Party.
Under his Party’s leading, Vietnamese people was successful in fighting
against the French occupation and had our own independence, when he
became the first president of Vietnam.
– Respecting his contribution and modality, for all Vietnamese family, he was regarded as the Great father or simply Uncle Ho.
* When did he die and the reason for this mausoleum?
Uncle Ho passed away in 1969, at the age of 79. Actually, in his will,
he wanted to be cremated then buried in three part of the country. The
North was the place where he worked and led Vietnamese revolution. The
Center is his home land and the South where 58 years ago, he left for
finding to new way to release the country and had no chance to come
back since then because of the war
– But at that time, Vietnam was
divided and the Southern people were looking forward for the country
reunification to see their Great father, so Vietnamese government
decided to keep his remain so later on people from any part of the
country have a chance to visit and see him.
– With a great help
from Soviet Union, the mausoleum was built and finally opened 1973 at
the exact place where president Ho Chi Minh read the Declaration of
Independent in 1945.
1.2 Ba Dinh square:
When the French come to Hanoi, they quickly turned this area into a
political centre of Tonkin, as you can see too day, there’re many
French building around here, which used to be head companies and
important offices under the French domination.
– On 2nd September
1945, after the August Revolution, the French were defeated and Ho Chi
Minh and his fellow took power the whole country from the North to the
South. The … , the young government renamed this area as Ba Dinh
square. Ba Dinh means three communal houses, it is a village in Thanh
Hoa province (about 170 km from Hanoi) where the first resistance
against the French colonialists of Vietnamese people took place. So
when Hanoi got freedom, the Vietnamese government decided to give the
name Ba Dinh to this district to remind of our brave history.
to now, Ba Dinh district is always considered the political cheart of
Hanoi, where most of government’s, Party’s and National assembly’s
offices are located
* Why Ho Chi Minh mausoleum was built here?
This is where in 1945, President Ho Chi Minh read the Declaration of
Independence on Sep 2nd, 1945 – marking the establishment of the
Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
– Also on Sep 9th, 1945 (1 week
after Ho Chi Minh’s death). This is where the memorial ceremony of
President Ho Chi Minh was held, with the attendance of ten thousand
people in Hanoi and other provinces and 34 groups of international
* When did the construction project start? And completed?
– The construction project started in 2nd Sep 1973 and completed on 21st August 1975.
– On 29th August 1975, the grand opening was held with a attendant of
* Where was Ho Chi Minh’s before this mausoleum was completed?
As you know, in his will, Ho Chi Minh asked for a simple funeral.
However, when he died, compliance with the Vietnamese people’s
expectations, the Vietnamese government decided to remain his dead
body, and a project of a mausoleum was proposed.
– However, at
that time, the war against American army was at its violence and it was
impossible to carry out the project. So, in 1969, when Ho Chi Minh
passed away, his dead body was firstly embalmed by Vietnamese and
Soviet Union experts and kept aseptic environment whist waiting for a
– Since 1969 to 1975 when the mausoleum was opened, Ho Chi Minh’s dead body was kept secretly.
- Firstly, it was preserved in a hospital in Hanoi (108 hospital).
from 1969 to 1975, because of some unexpected risks (the US escalated
the war in 1969, Hanoi was seriously flooded in 1970 and the US
aircraft’s furious bombing in Hanoi in 1972), he were moved to a army
base which is 60km West of Hanoi (K9 – Đá Chông – Sơn Tây). The
movement was extremely difficult, as they had to minimize any shakes
while maximize the speed to reach the new lab asap for the dead body
infrastructure was quite basic, all equipments were imported from
Soviet Union, but Vietnamese doctors had to make a lot of changes to
adapt with Vietnamese tropical climate and war condition.
* About the construction project? Where material came from
Ho Chi Minh granite mausoleum modeled after Lenin’s Tomb in Moscow. But
the architecture was careful designed to reflect Vietnamese culture and
– The first step of building was far more difficult
than everyone’s expectation; they found it’s almost impossible to drive
in a stake for foundation. Finally, after a fully survey, they found
out that the mausoleum were building on the foundation Western gate of
the ancient capital citadel, which had some huge rocks under the earth.
They have to set off a couple of mines to break the rocks first.
– It was built with contribution from all over the country.
province send their own resources or product to build this mausoleum:
marble, red plum marble, gold, tile, and even trees to decorate the
- Every people living in Hanoi had at least one day volunteer working at the mausoleum construction site
* Where material came from? Signification of its structure and details
The mausoleum is surrounded by square marble columns and divides the
building in to five sections. It remind to the traditional house of
Vietnamese in the countryside – where uncle Ho was born and grew up.
On the façade are the words “President Ho Chi Minh” written in red plum
marble. This material is considered to be symbol of lofty and morality
of President Ho Chi Minh.
– Inside, you can see the golden
sentence “Nothing is more precious than independence and freedom” – one
of the most well-known sentences spoken by Ho Chi Minh and this is also
the lodestar of Vietnamese war resistance against the invaders.
In front of the mausoleum, these’re hundreds of grass cells which can
be is imaged as a mat used in Vietnamese communal house for Vietnamese
people to gather around their great father Ho Chi Minh.
bamboo range on both side can be understood as defenses for this
mausoleum. Moreover, bamboo is considered to be the symbol of
Vietnamese spirit – very gentle but full of vitality.
* When was it built? For who and for what?
This building was designed by supervised a German architect for a
French Indochina Governor. The construction project started in 1900 and
completed in 1906.
– It was the most fussy and expensive
construction at that time. Rock, tile and brick were tailor made at
some factories in Vietnam whist fir, window bar, glass… were imported
from French and other European countries… to make sure that the
building had to prove the power of French people in Indochina.
– When the project was completed, this building had 400 rooms and named Indochina Governor Palace.
* What happened to this palace when Ho Chi Minh’s government took power?
In 1945, when Vietnam again had independence after almost hundred years
under the French domination, this building was recalled the
Presidential Palace. And Uncle Ho were supposed to lived and worked
– However, Ho Chi Minh refused to live in this luxurious
and huge building. He said it was totally unsuitable for his poor and
– When he came back Hanoi in 1954 after nine more
year fighting against the French, he still had no interested in its
luxury and beauty. So he just stayed at a small house in this garden
– So under Ho Chi Minh’s era, this palace was only
used to welcome foreign delegations and Vietnamese children who
sometimes visit their uncle Ho.
* And now?
Up to now, it’s still for Vietnamese President to welcome many heads of
states, high-ranking delegations of various parties and government all
over the world.
* About French architecture in Hanoi?
As you know, after completing their invasion in Hanoi, the French
designed a master plan for the city’s development, many Western streets
appeared, a lot of buildings were under construction. It is true to say
that the French architecture made a great influence on Hanoi scenery.
All the buildings with French architecture were designed very carefully
to adapt to the weather in Hanoi. It made the buildings always cool in
summer and warm in winter.
– General speaking, French building in
Hanoi always painted with yellow color. It makes the building to be
outstanding in the green garden. However, there’s another explanation:
as under the feudalism, yellow was a scared color which used only by
royal family. So when the French came to Vietnam, they wanted to used
the color to prove with local people that their position were as high
as a king.
* Ho Chi Minh’s cars?
– The Pobeda – a present from Soviet Union government in 1955, was very suitable for long distance and pumpy road.
The Peugeot – a present from French – Vietnamese people in 1964, used
for going around city and especially when uncle Ho’s getting older and
– Once, someone asked him to replace these old and
out-of-date cars with the modern ones but he refused, he said ‘they’re
good and they’re presents from his friends, nothing can be compared’
* The purpose of this house?
– This house used to belong to an electrician, who took care of the Governor Palace.
– From 1954 to 1958, uncle Ho lived and worked here.
– He’d a very simple life. Most of house facility (fan, radio…) were gifts from people all over the world.
He’d never got married so sometimes he was lonely. Late in the
afternoon, when everyone backed home, the radio was turned on all the
time until uncle Ho went to bed. He said “he needs to hear human voice
around to warm him up”
* When did uncle Ho moved to the house on silts?
Having an idea that this small and simple house wasn’t suitable for a
President, Vietnamese government decided to build his own house.
In 1958, the house on silts was completed, uncle Ho moved to lived and
worked their. But he still back to this house everyday for lunch,
dinner and personal hygience.
* Why was this house built?
– The house on stilts was completed on 19th May 1958 as a birthday gift for uncle Ho. He lived here until his death in 1969
This house reminded him to the time he lived in the mountainous area of
Northern border, where he spent quite a long time after coming back to
Vietnam after 30 years traveling abroad.
* About the surrounding garden?
The house on silts was located in an area of a botanical garden which
established under the French domination. It came up with Ho Chi Minh’s
wish “As for myself, I would like a small house next to green
mountains and blue water to fish and grow vegetable and nothing to do
with fame and wealth”.
– Trees in this garden are from all
over the country. Lots of them were presents from local people and
foreigners for uncle Ho, some of them were brought by himself from his
business trip aboard.
– In 1973, knowing about the Ho Chi Minh
memorial sites project in Hanoi, all provinces contribute their
specific trees and flower to this garden.
– There’s many interesting tree in this garden, for example the
Fish pond was grew up firstly by uncle Ho. Everyday around 4pm, he took
a break by feeding his fish (anabas, golden carp). He always came on
time and clapped his hands so these fish quickly learn a habit of
hearing this voice and coming up on the water. Long after his death,
the fish still keep this habit
– However, there’s too many visitors today who clapping their hands at anytime so none of them
The young fish and tree from this garden were delivered to many farmers
and launched a movement (VAC)– a combination of garden, fish pond and
* Its structure and signification? Ho Chi Minh’s living in this house?
– The house on stilts is an excellent example of uncle Ho’s simple life.
The ground floor was used as a meeting place of uncle Ho and his fellow
in the Ministry of politics, or the army operation head quarter
There’s a cement bench around the ground floor, which is not included
in the original architecture of typical house on silts. Uncle Ho
ordered to build this bench especially for his little friends –
children from all around the country sometimes came to visit their
uncle. The aquarium was also for the kids’ entertainment.
Upstairs, there were bedroom and studying room. Equipments in the house
are also very simple, only the necessarily item… many of them were
presents of him from his friend all over the world.
– The last ten
days of his life, uncle Ho was getting too tired quickly and couldn’t
to walk upstairs; he had to moved to the ground house next to this one
and went away from there.
– There’s a clock in this house keep
running, so Vietnamese visitors can feel as if their great father still
alive and completely free from power and authority.
* Importance of Ho Chi Minh memorial site to local people.
Ho Chi Minh has never got married and had no children. So in any
Vietnamese people, we regard him as a relative in our family by call
him uncle Ho. Everyone tries to take a chance to visit his memorial
area, where he stayed and lived.
– Since it opened in 1975,
there’s around 33 billion visitors come to this complex, both local
people and foreigners. On average, there’s around 10 thousand people
per day. On the special day like the National day, Victory day, the
number can be twice or three times bigger.
– For the little kids,
after a school year, if they’ve worked hard and had good results, their
school will organize a kind of intensive trip to this complex as a
present for them. The kids would be very proud of themselves and learn
a lot of Ho Chi Minh life.
* Why there’s a pagoda here
Hanoi became the capital in 1010, when one king decided to move from a
mountainous area to the delta, which is more convenient for
cultivating, trading and traffic. The king ordered to built a lot of
royal palace, temple and pagodas for the new citadel.
– The pagoda
was built in 1049, under the reign of Ly Thai Tong. But at that time,
it was a group of structures consisting of a pagoda and a tower built
in the middle of a square lake. The whole group was officially called
Diên Hựu (long lasting happiness) pagoda and Liên Hoa (lotus) tower,
but the tower has traditionally been called the One-pillar pagoda.
* Its unique architecture: legend and signification
– The pagoda looks like a lotus blossoming from the square pond. .
Its unique architecture based on the very interesting legend: in 11th
century the King Ly Thai Ton was very old and had no son. There for, he
often went to pagodas to pray for Buddha blessing so that he might have
one. One night, he had a dream that he met a Goddess of Mercy, who was
sitting on a lotus flower at the Western gate of the Imperial citdate.
She gave him a pretty boy. Months later, the queen got pregnant and
gave birth to a male child. To repay gift from the Goddess of Mercy,
the King order the construction of a pagoda in the shape of a lotus,
which was supported by only one pillar .
– Today, there’re many couple come here and pray for a child (especially a son).
* What happened to this pagoda in 1954
on September 11, 1954 before retreating from Hanoi, the French soldiers
mined and destroyed the pagoda. When the liberation forces took over
Hanoi, uncle Ho required to rebuilt the pagoda in accordance with its
original structure and completed it in April 1955.